Publications

Selected Publications:

A good overview of our minimal cognitive system approach is given in an article, recently published: reaCog, a minimal cognitive controller based on recruitment of reactive systems..

As our approach is a bottom-up approach towards a minimal cognitive system, we start with the reactive layer, the biologically inspired control network for hexapod walking –

The extension of the system towards a cognitive architecture and how this relates to planning processes, perception, … has been described in

  • Schilling, M. (2011). ”Learning by seeing—associative learning of visual features through mental simulation of observed action”. In R. Doursat (Ed.), Proceedings of the ECAL 2011, Paris: MIT Press, pp. 731–738.
  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2008). “The evolution of cognition – from first order to second order embodiment“. In I. Wachsmuth & G. Knoblich (Eds.), Modeling Communication with Robots and Virtual Humans (pages 77-108). Berlin: Springer.
  • Again, there was a short documentary on the connection of reactive behaviour to cognitive abilities and an extensive interview on the connection towards language (both in german).

The internal model –which shall be used for mental simulation and in service for reactive behaviours– is described here:

Publications by year:

(If you are interested in one of my articles, send me an e-mail and I will try to send you a copy – malteschilling [at] googlemail [dot] com).

2017:

  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2017), “ReaCog, a Minimal Cognitive Controller Based on Recruitment of Reactive Systems”. Front. Neurorobot. 11(3). doi: 10.3389/fnbot.2017.00003
  • Schilling, M. (2017). “Old Actions in Novel Contexts — a Cognitive Architecture for Safe Explorative Action Selection”. Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour Conference (AISB 2017), Bath (UK).

Under Review, in Press:

  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (in press), “Pattern Generation”. In T. Prescott and P. Verschure (Eds.), Living Machines – A Handbook of Research in Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems.
  • Schilling, M. (in press), “Coding Challenge”. In J. Gerick, A. Sommer, and G. Zimmermann (Eds.), Kompetent Prüfungen gestalten – 53 Prüfungsformate für die Hochschullehre.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (in press), “Getting cognitive”. In B. Bläsing, M. Puttke and T. Schack (Eds.), The Neurocognition of Dance, second edition.

2016:

  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2016), “Avoid the hard problem: Employment of mental simulation for prediction is already a crucial step”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS); doi:10.1073/pnas.1607146113
  • Nomikou, I., Schilling, M., Heller, V. and Rohlfing, K. J. (2016), “Action and interaction as contexts for enriching representations”. Interaction Studies, 17(1), pp. 128–153.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2016), “Mental states as emergent properties. From walking to consciousness”. In: Open Mind, Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century. Vol 1. Metzinger T, Windt JM (Eds); Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press: 349-386.
  • Schilling, M., Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, S., Wrede, B., Ritter, H., Brox, T., Nebel, B., Burgard, W. (2016). “Towards A Multidimensional Perspective on Shared Autonomy”. Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium Series 2016, Stanford (USA).
  • Lücking, P., Rohlfing, K., Wrede, B., and Schilling, M. (2016). “Preschoolers’ Engagement in Social Interaction with an Autonomous Robotic System”. Proceedings of the Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob) 2016, Paris.
  • Paskarbeit, J., Otto, M., Schilling, M., and Schneider, A. (2016). “Stick(y) Insects — Evaluation of Static Stability for Bio-Inspired Leg Coordination in Robotics”. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Living Machines 2016, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 239–250.
  • Schilling, M. (2016). “Lose a leg but not your head – a cognitive extension of a biologically-inspired walking architecture”. Proceedings of the Intern. Conf. on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures 2016, New York (USA). Appeared in Procedia Computer Science (2016) pp. 102-106.

2015:

  • Cruse, H., and Schilling, M. (2015). “The Bottom-up Approach: Benefits and Limits”. In: Open Mind, Metzinger, T., Windt, J. (eds.); Frankfurt/M.: MIND Group Frankfurt/M.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2015), “Mental states as emergent properties. From walking to consciousness”. In: Open Mind. Metzinger, T., Windt, J. (eds.); Frankfurt/M.: MIND Group Frankfurt/M.
  • Baum, M., Meier, M., and Schilling, M. (2015), “Population based Mean of Multiple Computations Networks: A Building Block for Kinematic Models”. Proc. of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2015, Killarney (Ireland), pp. 1–8.
  • Paskarbeit, J., Schilling, M., Schmitz, J., and Schneider, A. (2015), Obstacle crossing of a real, compliant robot based on local evasion movements and averaging of stance heights using singular value decomposition,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp.3140-3145. doi: 10.1109/ICRA.2015.7139631
  • Priesters, M., Schilling, M., and Kopp, S. (2015), “Towards a Layered Framework for Embodied Language Processing in Situated Human-Robot-Interaction”. 19th SemDial Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue (goDIAL) 2015.
  • Hoinville, T., Schilling, M., & Cruse, H. (2015). Control of rhythmic behavior: Central and Peripheral Influences to Pattern Generation. in: ICRA Workshop on “Pros and Cons of Central Pattern Generators”, ICRA 2015, pp. 1-3.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2015), “Mental states as emergent properties. From walking to consciousness”. In: Open Mind. Metzinger, T., Windt, J. (eds.); Frankfurt/M.: MIND Group Frankfurt/M.
  • Cruse, H., and Schilling, M. (2015). “The Bottom-up Approach: Benefits and Limits.” In: Open Mind, Metzinger, T., Windt, J. (eds.); Frankfurt/M.: MIND Group Frankfurt/M.

2014:

  • Schack, T., Bläsing, B., Hughes, C., Flash, T. and Schilling, M. (2014), “Elements and Construction of Motor Control”. In A. Papaioannou & D. Hackfort (Eds.), Routledge Companion to Sport and Exercise Psychology:Global Perspectives and Fundamental Concepts. London: Routledge (pages 306–321).
  • Schneider, A., Paskarbeit, J., Schilling, M. and Schmitz, J. (2014), “HECTOR, A Bio-Inspired and Compliant Hexapod Robot”. In: A. Duff, T. Prescott, P. Verschure, N. Lepora (eds.): Living Machines 2014, LNAI 8608, pp. 427–429.
  • Cruse, H., Schilling, M. (2014). “Action Selection within short time windows.” In: A. Duff, T. Prescott, P. Verschure, N. Lepora (eds.): Living Machines 2014, LNAI 8608, pp. 47–58.
  • Hoinville, T., Krause, A., Schilling, M., and Cruse, H. (2014). “Bridging an Interspecies Gap? Toward Human-Insectoid Robot Interaction.” In Proceedings of 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2014), Bielefeld, Germany.

2013:

  • Schilling, M., Hoinville, T., Schmitz, J. and Cruse, H. (2013), “Walknet, a bio-inspired controller for hexapod walking”. Biological Cybernetics, 107(4), pages 397-419.
  • Schilling, M., Paskarbeit, J., Hüffmeier, A., Schneider, A., Schmitz, J., and Cruse, H. (2013), “A hexapod walker using a heterarchical architecture for action selection”. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 7:126. doi: 10.3389/fncom.2013.00126.
  • Schilling, M. and Narayanan, S. (2013), “Communicating with Executable Action Representations”. In Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium Series 2013, Stanford, http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/SSS/SSS13/paper/view/5772/5944
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2013), “How and to what end may consciousness contribute to action? Attributing properties of consciousness to an embodied, minimally cognitive artificial neural network”. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(324). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00324

2012:

  • Schilling, M., Rohlfing, K., & Cruse, H. (2012). “Prediction as internal simulation: Taking chances in what to do next”. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(405). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00405
  • Schilling, M., & Cruse, H. (2012). “What’s next: Recruitment of a grounded predictive body model for planning a robot’s actions”. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(383). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00383
  • Schilling, M., Paskarbeit, J., Schmitz, J., Schneider, A., and Cruse, H. (2012), “Grounding an Internal Body Model of a Hexapod Walker – Control of Curve Walking in a Biological Inspired Robot—Control of Curve Walking in a Biological Inspired Robot”. In Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2012, pages 2762-2768.
  • Schilling, M., Paskarbeit, J., Schneider, A., and Cruse, H. (2012), “Flexible internal body models for motor control: On the convergence of constrained dual quaternion mean of multiple computation networks”, Proc. of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2012, Brisbane (AUS), doi: 10.1109/IJCNN.2012.6252846 .
  • Schilling, M. (2012), Grounded internal body models for communication: Integration of sensory, motor and visual spaces for mediating conceptualization”. In L. Steels & M. Hild (Eds.), Language Grounding in Robots. Berlin: Springer (pages 131–150).

2011:

  • Schilling, M. (2011), “Universally manipulable body models – dual quaternion representations in layered and dynamic MMCs”, Autonomous Robots, Vol. 30(4); pages 399-425.
  • Schilling, M. (2011). ”Learning by seeing—associative learning of visual features through mental simulation of observed action”. In R. Doursat (Ed.), Proceedings of the ECAL 2011, Paris: MIT Press, pp. 731–738.
  • Cruse, H., & Schilling, M. (2011). ”From egocentric systems to systems allowing for theory of mind and mutualism.“ In R. Doursat (Ed.), Proceedings of the ECAL 2011, Paris: MIT Press, pp. 184–191.
  • Schilling, M. (2011). ”Integrating multi-sensory input in the body model – a RNN approach to connect proprioception, visual features and motor control.“ Proc. of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2011, San Jose (CA).

2010:

  • Schilling, M. (2010), “A universally manipulable body model: Application of the MMC principle to a Dual Quaternion Representation”. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2010 at WCCI 2010 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence), pages 521-528, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2010), “Learning and retrieval of hierarchically organized information in a simple, one-layered RNN”. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2010 at WCCI 2010 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence), pages 521-528, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling M. (2010), “Chunking by naming: a nonlinear recurrent network for storing hierarchical memory contents“. NDES Dresden 2010 (in press).
  • Cruse, H. and Schilling, M. (2010). “Getting cognitive”. In B. Bläsing, M. Puttke and T. Schack (Eds.), The Neurocognition of Dance. Psychology Press.
  • Paskarbeit, J., Schmitz, J., Schilling, M., and Schneider, A. (2010), “Layout and Construction of a Hexapod Robot with Increased Mobility“. Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (IEEE BIOROB 2010), Sept. 26th – 29th, 2010, pp. 621-625.
  • Paskarbeit, J., Schmitz, J., Schilling, M., and Schneider, A. (2010), “Design of an insectoid robot as a versatile carrier for bioinspired sensors.” Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2010), August 31st – September 3rd, 2010, Nagoya, Japan, pp. 173-180.

2009:

  • Cruse, H., Dürr, V., Schilling, M and Schmitz, J. (2009). “Principles of insect locomotion”. In P. Arena & L. Patanè (Eds.), Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots, Cognitive Systems Monographs, Vol. 1 (pages 43-96). Berlin: Springer.
  • Cruse, H., Dürr, V., Schilling, M. and Schmitz, J. (2009). “Bottom-up approach for cognitive control”. In P. Arena & L. Patanè (Eds.), Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots, Cognitive Systems Monographs, Vol. 1 (pages 179-218). Berlin: Springer.
  • A. Schneider, M. Schilling, H. Cruse, J. Schmitz (2009), “Positive Velocity Feedback on a Six-legged Walking Robot”, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2009, pp. 623-630), Sept. 9th – 11th, 2009, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Schilling, M. (2009). “Dynamic equations in MMC networks: Construction of a dynamic body model”, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2009), Sept. 9th – 11th, 2009, Istanbul, Turkey.

2008:

  • Schmitz, J., Schneider, A., Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2008). “No need for a body model: Positive velocity feedback for the control of an 18-DOF robot walker”. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, Special Issue on Biologically Inspired Robots, Vol. 5 (3), pages 135-147.
  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2008). “The evolution of cognition – from first order to second order embodiment”. In I. Wachsmuth & G. Knoblich (Eds.), Modeling Communication with Robots and Virtual Humans (pages 77-108). Berlin: Springer.
  • Schilling, M., Schneider, A., Cruse, H. and Schmitz, J. (2008). “Local control mechanisms in six-legged walking”. In Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2008, pages 2655-2660.

2007:

  • Schilling, M., Cruse, H. and Arena, P. (2007). “Hexapod walking: an expansion to walknet dealing with leg amputations and force oscillations”. Biological Cybernetics, 96(3), pages 323-340.
  • Schilling, M. and Cruse, H. (2007). “Hierarchical MMC networks as a manipulable body model”. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2007), Orlando, FL.
  • Schilling, M., Cruse, H. and Schmitz, J. (2007). “Mental models for cognitive control”.
  • In P. Arena, Á. Rodríguez-Vázquez, G. Liñán-Cembrano (Eds.), Bioengineered and Bioinspired Systems III. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6592, 659208-1–659208-14.
  • Arena, P., Patanè, L., Schilling, M. and Schmitz, J. (2007). “Walking capabilities of Gregor controlled through Walknet”. In P. Arena, Á. Rodríguez-Vázquez, G. Liñán-Cembrano (Eds.), Bioengineered and Bioinspired Systems III. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6592, 65920K.

2006:

  • Schilling, M., Patanè, L., Arena, P., Schmitz, J. and Schneider, A. (2006). “Different, biomimetic inspired walking machines controlled by a decentralised control approach relying on artificial neural networks”. In Proceedings of SAB 2006 Workshop on Bio-inspired cooperative and adaptive behaviours in robots, Rome, Italy.

2005:

  • Heumer, G., Schilling, M. and Latoschik, M.E. “Automatic data exchange and synchronization for knowledge-based intelligent virtual environments”, in: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2005. Bonn (Germany). March 2005.

2003:

  • Latoschik, M.E. and Schilling, M. “Incorporating VR Databases into AI Knowledge Representations: A Framework for Intelligent Graphics Applications”. in 6. IASTED International Conference on Computer Graphics and Imaging. 2003: ACTA Press.
  • Schilling, M. “Ein Framework für funktional erweiterbare Semantische Netzwerke in der VR”, Diploma thesis, Technical Faculty, University of Bielefeld.

Selected Presentations
(in addition to presentation of papers)

  • M. Schilling, “The Sensorimotor Grounding of Language”. Invited Talk at Workshop on Neural Dynamics (Düsseldorf, Germany), May 2015.
  • M. Schilling, “Simulation-based planning: A minimal cognitive systems approach”. Invited Talk at Google, Mountainview (CA, USA). March 2015.
  • M. Schilling, “Internal models for planning novel behaviours”. Invited Talk at the Living Machines Conference 2014 (Milano, Italy), Symposium for Embodied Interaction and Internal Models, July 2014.
  • M. Schilling, “Flexible Internal Body Models for Motor Control”. Invited Talk at the University of Tübingen (D), Colloquium Series of the Cognitive Science Group, November 2012.
  • M. Schilling, “Recruitment of Grounded Internal Models in Action, Cognition and Language”. Invited Talk at “Embodied Simulations for Cognitive Interaction’ Workshop at the ZiF in Bielefeld (G), November 2011.
  • M. Schilling, “Recruitment of Grounded Internal Models in Action, Cognition and Language”. Invited Talk at ‘Action, Language and Neuroinformatics’ Workshop in Los Angeles (CA), organised by M. Arbib (University of Southern California), July 2011.
  • M. Schilling, “Cognition as Recruitment of Reactive Systems”. Invited Talk at the SAB Conference in Paris in the Workshop ‘Evolutionary transitions of brain-body couplings’, August 2010.
  • M. Schilling, “Embodied internal Models”, talk at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin in the Focus Group ‘Understanding the Brain’, Berlin, December 2008.
  • M. Schilling, “Mental Simulation for cognitive Control”, invited talk, SPIE Conference: Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2007, Gran Canaria, April 2007.
  • M. Schilling, “Mentale Simulation für Kognitive Kontrolle, Ein bottom-up Ansatz zur Kontrolle komplexer Bewegungen eines autonomen Roboters”, Doctoral Workshop, KogWis 2007, Saarbrücken, March 2007.
  • M. Schilling, “Adaptive Koordinierung von peripheren Mustergeneratoren”, invited talk, colloquium, Institute for technical informatics, University of Lübeck, October 2006.
  • M. Schilling, “Mental Simulation for cognitive Control – A bottom-up approach for an autonomous robot towards cognitive control”, invited talk, International Workshop on FIRB project, Catania, June 2006.
  • M. Schilling, “Adaptive Coordination of peripheral pattern generators”, Arthropodenseminar “BUGS 2005”, Bielefeld, October 2005.

Miscellaneous

  • March 2012: Extended Abstract “Recruitment of Mean of Multiple Computation networks for action, perception and cognition“ and Poster at Workshop on Cognitive Dynamics in Neural Systems: Mathematical and Computational Modeling, 2012, Lyon (F).
  • June 2011: Part of television report “Was wir noch nicht wissen: Warum können wir sprechen?“ in BR-Alpha.
  • September 2010: Extended Abstract “Embodied posture verbs: Emergence of a vocabulary for describing postures“ and Talk at Conference on Conceptual structure, discourse and language (CSDL) & Embodied and situated language processing (ESLP) 2010, San Diego.
  • December 2009: Part of television report “Inside Science (part 2): Roboter – die Menschmaschine“ in ZDF (Second German Television).
  • June 2009: Television broadcast and interview on “Motorical Intelligence” in 3sat television program “Scobel” on Artificial Intelligence.
  • April 2008: Production of two episodes for documentary film series “Intelligent walking: Lola rennt” for DFG Science TV (Pilot project Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • February 2008: M. Schilling, Holk Cruse, “Plan ahead! From reactive to cognitive systems”, presented poster at international conference on “Load and Force Control in Walking Pattern Generation of Animals and Robots: From Sensors to Local and Global Control Function”, Cologne 2008.
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